What Benefits Of Antioxidants For Your Skin?
You may have heard of oxidation and anti-oxidation, but the anti-oxidation in skin care is different from the anti-oxidation that you realize in life.
Q：Do you think the picture below can represent the oxidation phenomenon in skin care?
The picture above is the famous apple oxidation experiment. When the peeled apple is placed in the air for some time, the surface of the apple will change from a tender yellow to a dry brown.
Many people are aware of the apple oxidation test, which is intuitive and scary. As if it is not antioxidant, the skin will be dull like an apple in the picture, but the antioxidant in the skin is completely different.
The concept of anti-oxidant in skin care is completely different from the picture above.
Before introducing anti-oxidant, we must first understand the free radicals that cause damage to our skin.
Table of Contents
- What Are Free Radicals？
- What Is Antioxidant?
- What Type Of Food Helps Antioxidant？
- What Kind Of Skin Care Products Help Antioxidant？
What Are Free Radicals？
People need to continuously consume energy during normal life activities, and these energies are obtained from food intake.
After we eat food, the body breaks down the food into glucose and fatty acids, etc., allowing these substances to flow throughout the body with the blood.
All organs and tissues of the human body are composed of cells, including skin cells.
The place where the human body converts glucose into energy is the mitochondria in the cell. So our whole body is transforming energy.
Glucose, with the help of oxygen, is converted inside the mitochondria into the energy required for physiological activity. However, during the conversion of energy, free radicals are generated inside the mitochondria.
Under normal circumstances, mitochondria will wrap themselves with a double membrane to prevent free radicals from leaking to the outside. At the same time, the antioxidants inside the mitochondria are used to eliminate free radicals. Even if a few free radicals are leaked to the outside, the antioxidants in the cells can eliminate free radicals.
But if mitochondria produce too many free radicals, and the free radicals are too active. There will be a large number of free radicals leaking to the outside. They will attack cells, destroy proteins, and even damage DNA, causing gene mutations.
Free radicals damage healthy skin cells, which can cause skin roughness, dullness, wrinkles, and aging.
All substances in the world are made of molecules, including cells. Molecules are made up of atoms. The atom contains electrons.
Free radicals attack human tissues by stealing electrons from cells.
The atom whose electrons are taken away by free radicals is extremely restless, and it will snatch electrons from other atoms.
This phenomenon is similar to a person who has been bitten by a zombie and will become a zombie to infect other people.
The following factors can also cause the increase of free radicals in the body:
1. Ultraviolet radiation will produce a lot of free radicals in the skin.
2. Environmental pollution, including air pollution, drinking water pollution, industrial wastewater pollution, soil pollution, automobile engine exhaust, industrial exhaust gas, burning of low-quality coal with sulfur, and photochemical smog, etc.
3. The abuse of chemical drugs, such as the abuse of food additives, pesticides, and drugs.
4. High-sugar diet, stress, smoking, excessive drinking, staying up late, eating too much junk food, etc., will all cause the increase of free radicals in the body.
The process of eliminating free radicals is called anti-oxidation.
What Is Antioxidant?
Because free radicals exist in the form of active oxygen, such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, single oxygen, hydroxyl free radical. Antioxidation is the process of resisting the damage of these reactive oxygen free radicals.
The way antioxidants resist free radicals is to allocate their electrons to free radicals, so that aggressive free radicals become mild, while antioxidants that lose electrons are not aggressive.
Fortunately, we have an immune system, which produces a lot of antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, and coenzyme Q10. These antioxidants can help us resist the attacks of these free radicals and minimize damage.
When we are young, the immune system in the body works well, can produce a lot of antioxidants, effectively remove free radicals. At this time, even if we stay up late, eat unhealthy food, or get exposed to the sun, the facial skin is not easy to get worse.
But with age, the ability to remove free radicals becomes worse and worse, and facial skin will appear wrinkles, dullness, and aging.
Therefore, anti-oxidation is an extremely important step in skin care. Without anti-oxidation, anti-aging cannot be achieved.
Not only that, for skin prone to acne, squalene, which plays an antioxidant role in sebum, is oxidized to squalene peroxide under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Squalene peroxide can induce hyperkeratosis of keratinocytes in the hair follicle opening, increase the risk of clogged pores, produce an inflammatory response, and ultimately lead to acne.
There are 3 ways to resist free radical damage:
1. Use the free radical scavenging system in the body to remove excess free radicals in the body;
2. Eating foods rich in antioxidants can produce more antioxidants in the body and block the invasion of free radicals to the human body.
3. Use skin care products containing antioxidant ingredients to prevent free radicals from damaging healthy skin cells and delay skin aging.
What Type Of Food Helps Antioxidant？
Many foods in life have antioxidant functions. These foods contain 8 common antioxidants to exert their antioxidant function.
What kind of ingredients can help us remove free radicals?
Let’s dive right it.
1. Vitamin C
Representative food: Cauliflower, blueberry, orange, kiwi
Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant ingredient. It can enhance the skin’s resistance to ultraviolet rays, has a good effect on the elimination of free radicals and the discharge of toxins in the body, and can effectively prevent the formation of skin spots.
At the same time, it can also promote the synthesis of collagen, making the skin bright and elastic.
2. Vitamin E
Representative food: Kiwi, nuts, spinach
Vitamin E and Vitamin C are both well-known antioxidant ingredients.
It can effectively protect our body cells from the damage of free radicals, thereby delaying aging, brightening the complexion, and reducing wrinkles.
At the same time, it can also reduce the oxygen consumption of cells, increase the endurance of the human body, and more effectively help us relieve cramps and stiffness in our hands and feet.
3. Beta carotene
Representative food: Carrots, spinach, ipomoea aquatica, blueberries
Beta-carotene is known as the nemesis of free radicals. It can maintain the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes, help slow down the process of cell aging, and prevent dry and rough skin.
4. Caffeine, Caffeic Acid
Representative food: coffee
Many people think that coffee is the world’s biggest source of antioxidants because coffee contains about 20 antioxidant components, including chlorogenic acid, caffeine, caffeic acid, eugenol, gamma-tocopherol, isoeugenol, p-coumaric acid, scopoletin and tannic acid and other alcohols and flavonoids class.
Coffee can also reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Coffee can not only protect the heart, but also reduce the risk of liver cirrhosis, accelerate the liver to metabolize toxic substances, and thereby reduce the occurrence of liver diseases.
Representative food: Blueberries, cranberries, grapes, purple sweet potatoes
There are more than 300 kinds of proanthocyanidins in nature, derived from different fruits and vegetables. The antioxidant effect of proanthocyanidins is mainly reflected in preventing the formation of melanin, delaying the production of wrinkles, while also helping to promote sleep, enhance immunity, and improve the elasticity of blood vessel walls. Proanthocyanidins have a strong antioxidant capacity, which is 20 times higher than vitamin C.
Representative food: Tomato, watermelon, etc.
Lycopene, known as plant golden, is a highly effective antioxidant. Its antioxidant capacity is 20 times that of vitamin C and can eliminate free radicals in the human body. Foods rich in lycopene can be more effectively absorbed by the body after being cooked or when combined with protein.
Representative food: Garlic
Allicin is a kind of sulfide, which has the effect of directly scavenging free radicals. Eating garlic regularly can also promote blood circulation and help detoxification.
8. Tea polyphenols
Representative food: Green tea, black tea, etc.
Tea polyphenols are a general term for polyphenols in tea. Tea polyphenols can very strongly eliminate free radicals harmful to the human body, block the oxidation process of lipids, and prevent pigmentation on the skin. It can also alleviate glucose metabolism disorders in the body and maintain normal blood sugar levels.
What Kind Of Skin Care Products Help Antioxidant？
During the day, we will carry out a lot of physiological activities, and the skin will be affected by air pollution and ultraviolet rays, which is easy to produce a lot of free radicals.
If you do not remove these free radicals, the skin will age faster over time.
The anti-oxidant step must be added to skin care during the day, and your face will aging more slowly than your peers.
What ingredients in skin care products have an anti-oxidant function?
Let’s dive right it.
1. Vitamin C
Vitamin C is the first recommended ingredient. If you don’t know skin care knowledge, choose vitamin C.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is one of the most intensively studied active ingredients in the field of skin care.
Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant that not only helps to scavenge free radicals but also helps increase collagen and enhance skin elasticity and vitality.
The principle of vitamin C to remove free radicals is to sacrifice yourself and die with free radicals, protecting your skin from free radical damage.
- This refers to vitamin C, not vitamin C derivatives. The ingredient list of some skin care products will list many vitamin C derivatives, but the vitamin C derivatives are finally converted into vitamin C in the skin to play a role, which is much less effective than vitamin C.
- The effective concentration of vitamin C is 10%-20%, and high concentrations of vitamin C can be irritating to the skin. If your skin cannot tolerate the irritation of high concentrations of vitamin C, please choose other antioxidant ingredients rather than vitamin C derivatives.
- High levels of vitamin C will make your face yellow, and your face will return to its original state after a few days of stopping use. Or use AHA every half month to 1 month to exfoliate.
- Vitamin C is unstable and will lose its activity easily when exposed to ultraviolet rays and high temperatures. Please keep it in the refrigerator after use.
The following 4 brands are preferred for choosing vitamin C:
These four brands are all cosmeceuticals, and SKINCEUTICALS is more well-known because it is incorporated into the L’Oreal Group. The other three brands are not well known.
But these four brands are masters in the vitamin C field, and no other brands can compare with these four brands.
They are developed with a focus on efficacy and do not consider skin feel, scent, or appearance. They only consider how to strengthen the product effect as much as possible within a safe range, so that the product can effectively solve the skin problem.
SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic
Antioxidant ingredients: 15% Vitamin C + 1% Vitamin E + 0.5% Ferulic Acid.
Free radicals can damage our skin. To remove free radicals, we must go deep into skin cells and eliminate free radicals in the cells.
The cell structure of skin cells is distinguished by water solubility and fat solubility.
The cell membrane is fat-soluble and the cell sap is water-soluble.
If only water-soluble vitamin C is used for anti-oxidation, it can only eliminate free radicals in the cell sap, but not in the cell membrane. At this time, fat-soluble antioxidants must be added.
Also, the spaces between cells are filled with intercellular lipids, which are fat-soluble and easily absorb fat-soluble vitamin E.
The inside of the cell is water-soluble and it is easy to absorb water-soluble vitamin C.
Only use water-soluble antioxidants and fat-soluble antioxidants at the same time can achieve the purpose of anti-oxidation.
This serum contains 15% vitamin C, which has a strong antioxidant capacity. But the disadvantage of vitamin C is that it is water-soluble and not easily absorbed by the skin. Vitamin E is fat-soluble and easily absorbed by the skin.
The antioxidant capacity of vitamin E is about 500 times that of vitamin C. This serum has a great antioxidant effect with only 1% vitamin E.
Moreover, the sebum secreted by the skin also contains vitamin E, which helps the skin to resist oxidation, which is why oily skin is less prone to aging than dry skin.
Ferulic acid is an auxiliary antioxidant ingredient, it can improve the antioxidant effect of vitamin C. It also has certain anti-inflammatory and anti-ultraviolet abilities.
The classic combination of vitamin C + vitamin E + ferulic acid increases the antioxidant effect of vitamin C by 8 times. It is the best antioxidant product I have ever used.
With this serum, the skin will not be dull all day long.
Its disadvantage is that it is more expensive.
SkinCeuticals PHLORETIN CF
Antioxidant ingredients: 10% vitamin C + 2% phloretin + 0.5% ferulic acid.
Compared with SkinCeuticals CEF, this serum removes vitamin E, which makes the skin feel more refreshing, but the moisturizing ability and antioxidant ability are also reduced.
Replace vitamin E with phloretin. Phloretin is an auxiliary antioxidant, it also has a certain whitening effect.
In terms of skin feel, this serum is more suitable for oily skin. Because oily skin produces more sebum, sebum can help us antioxidant.
As far as the effect is concerned, this serum is more suitable for people who do not have very high antioxidant requirements and have whitening needs.
If you can’t stand the irritation of SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic, you can try SkinCeuticals PHLORETIN CF.
In fact, the antioxidant effect of this serum is also very good.
Cellex-C Advanced-C Serum
Cellex-C is the first company to apply vitamin C to skin care. The founders of SKINCEUTICALS, PHYTO-C, and OBAGI have all worked in Cellex-C, and later left Cellex-C for various reasons.
The antioxidant ingredient of this serum not only contains 10% vitamin C, but also contains antioxidants such as lipoic acid, ergothioneine, bioflavonoids, and resveratrol.
As mentioned earlier, vitamin C sacrifices oneself to remove free radicals. If vitamin C is all gone, it will no longer be able to resist oxidation. Lipoic acid can revive dead vitamin C and enhance its antioxidant effect. At the same time, lipoic acid, ergothioneine, and resveratrol are all excellent antioxidants.
This serum is rich in water-soluble antioxidants and fat-soluble antioxidants. For skin that is not particularly oily, the face remains bright for a long time after use.
The skin feel of this serum is very smooth. The reason is that it uses water as a solvent.
Vitamin C is extremely unstable in aqueous solutions, afraid of light and high temperatures, and is very easy to lose its activity. As a result, most vitamin C products use alcohol as solvents, which can lead to the uncomfortable skin feel.
However, this serum has developed a vitamin C stabilization technology in water solvents to ensure the stability of vitamin C in aqueous solutions.
Obagi Professional-C Serum
One of the founders of Obagi is Dr. Obagi, a member of the American Academy of Sciences, his main research areas are chloasma, precancerous lesions, deep wrinkles, aging, acne scars, and photodamaged skin.
Obagi Professional-C’s exclusive weapon is the use of polyols to ensure the stability of vitamin C and promote the skin to absorb skin care products.
The ingredient of this serum is very simple, vitamin C + vitamin C Glucoside. All are water-soluble antioxidants, but Obagi’s patented technology can increase the penetration rate of skin care products. The anti-oxidant time of this serum is longer. After using it in the morning, it will not become dull until the evening.
Obagi Professional-C has three concentrations of vitamin C serum, namely 10%, 15%, and 20%. The concentration of vitamin C serum is 10%-20% to achieve better results.
If you have never used vitamin C serum before, it is recommended that you use a 10% concentration. If you can withstand a 10% concentration, gradually increase the concentration used.
Phyto-C Superheal O-live Serum
Note: This is Phyto-C Superheal O-live Serum, not Phyto-C Superheal O-live gel. Phyto-C Gel is the best anti-inflammatory product, but here is the serum.
Dr. Omar used to work at Cellex-C. He is a member of the R&D team of the world’s first generation of vitamin C products. Dr. Omar is said to be the first scientist in history to apply vitamin C to the field of skin care and is known as the father of vitamin C.
He pioneered the use of vitamin C, vitamin E, ferulic acid, and bioflavonoids to enhance the efficacy of vitamin C and stabilize vitamin C technology.
The ingredient of this serum is vitamin C + vitamin E + lipoic acid + bioflavonoids, which ensures the long-term antioxidant capacity of the face and the stability of vitamin C.
It also adds kojic acid and arbutin to enhance the whitening effect.
The addition of retinol makes it anti-aging and prevent acne.
In addition, it has a unique olive extract, which provides a powerful anti-inflammatory effect. This is a very comprehensive serum.
This serum may be irritating to your skin, it is recommended to use moisturizing products and repair products before using it. If you can’t stand its stimulation, it is recommended to reduce the frequency of use and use it every 2-3 days.
The following brands do not have the exclusive patents of these four brands, and their effectiveness is not as good as these four brands.
Paula’s Choice BOOST C15 Super Booster
The antioxidant formula chosen by Paula’s Choice C15 is to imitate SkinCeuticals CEF, which is also 15% vitamin C+1% vitamin E+0.5% ferulic acid.
Sodium hyaluronate and panthenol are also added to enhance moisturizing and moisturizing, and bisabolol is used for anti-inflammatory and soothing.
The antioxidant effect of this vitamin C serum is about 50% of SkinCeuticals CEF, but the price is only one-third of SkinCeuticals CEF.
Use this serum in the morning and your face will gradually become dull in the afternoon.
This serum has a water-like texture, and the skin feels non-greasy, refreshing, and has high vitamin C stability. But it smells bad.
Paula’s Choice C15 and SkinCeuticals CEF have the same formula, but the effect is different. The reason is that SkinCeuticals owns the exclusive patented technology of Vitamin C to enhance the penetration and absorption rate of skincare products.
If you can’t afford SkinCeuticals CEF, you can try Paula’s Choice C15.
Timeless 20%C + E + Ferulic Acid Serum
The antioxidant formula of this serum is also imitating SkinCeuticals CEF, which is vitamin C + vitamin E + ferulic acid. Also added panthenol and hyaluronic acid to help moisturize.
Its vitamin C concentration is as high as 20%, which is more irritating.
Although its vitamin C concentration is higher, its antioxidant effect is about 30% of SkinCeuticals CEF. After using this serum for about 4-5 hours, the face will gradually become dull. But its price is 15% of SkinCeuticals CEF.
Compared with other vitamin C serums, it is easier to stain your face and clothes. If you use this serum, use AHA to exfoliate regularly.
Clinique Fresh Pressed Daily Booster With Pure Vitamin C 10%
This serum from Clinique has only 10% vitamin C. Its antioxidant capacity is relatively limited, the skin feels better, and the irritation is low.
If you want to try vitamin C, you can try this serum. It has a small capacity, only 8.5ml each, and 4 bottles are the capacity of a bottle of serum. Each one can be used for about a week, ensuring the activity and freshness of VC to the greatest extent.
Martiderm Photo-Age Platinum 30 Ampoules
Antioxidant ingredients: 15% vitamin C + vitamin C glucoside.
It also added Bifida Ferment Lysate (BFL) to repair damaged skin, and retinol palmitate for anti-aging.
Its skin feels thicker and oily skin will not like it. And it smells very good.
This vitamin C serum is stored in the form of an ampoule. Ampoules are generally used to preserve products that are difficult to preserve after opening, such as vitamin C.
It packs 60ml of serum into 30 ampoules. This prevents vitamin C from coming into contact with the air every time it is used, which will gradually lose its activity.
Resveratrol was once related to a fraud incident.
Dr. David Sinclair of Harvard once published a view that resveratrol can repair mitochondria, and taking resveratrol can live longer for decades. This view has attracted people’s attention, and GlaxoSmithKline has also invested heavily in research.
But after 2 years of research, resveratrol proved to be unable to repair mitochondria or prolong life.
Although resveratrol cannot prolong life, it has two benefits for the skin.
Resveratrol, like vitamin C, achieves the purpose of anti-oxidation by destroying it with free radicals.
Resveratrol can pretend to be tyrosine, deceive, and consume the activity of tyrosinase, reduce the synthesis of melanin, and achieve a whitening effect.
SkinCeuticals Resveratrol B E
Antioxidant ingredients: 1% resveratrol + 1% vitamin E + 0.5% scutellaria baicalensis + caffeine.
This serum can keep the face in a bright and not dull state for a long time, and the complexion is bright. The antioxidant effect of SkinCeuticals Resveratrol matches SkinCeuticals CEF and SkinCeuticals PCF.
Added niacinamide to aid whitening.
The main raw materials are extracted from plants. Compared with other antioxidant products of SkinCeuticals, this serum is much less irritating to the skin.
Sesderma Resveraderm Liposomal Serum
Antioxidant ingredients: Resveratrol, vitamin E.
It also added eryngium maritimum to give this serum the ability to resist damage and repair cell damage.
The addition of retinol palmitate gives this serum an anti-aging ability.
This serum uses lecithin coating technology to encapsulate resveratrol and continuously release resveratrol. At the same time, the skin-friendly properties of lecithin are used to improve the absorption and permeability of resveratrol.
Although its anti-oxidant effect is good, this serum has too much spice, and the spice are highly allergenic. Many people with sensitive skin will have a tingling sensation after using it.
The Ordinary 3%Resveratrol + 3%Ferulic Acid
Antioxidant ingredients: 3% resveratrol, 3% ferulic acid.
The Ordinary’s product concentration is the highest in the industry. Although its concentration is high, The Ordinary’s product is not suitable as a separate antioxidant product, and its absorption rate and permeability cannot be compared with other big brands.
Using The Ordinary’s high-concentration serum, the serum will evaporate after a while, and most of the serum is difficult to be absorbed by your skin.
The Ordinary products are suitable for use with other anti-oxidant serum to assist other anti-oxidant serum.
For example, if you use Clinique Fresh Pressed Vitamin 10%, you can add this serum to improve the antioxidant effect.
Tea polyphenols are effective ingredients in tea and have very powerful antioxidant capacity. It is also easily absorbed by the skin. If you don’t like vitamin C, you can try skin care products containing tea polyphenols.
In addition to anti-oxidation, tea polyphenols also have anti-bacterial, anti-radiation, anti-aging, and antiseptic functions.
Replenix Power of Three Antioxidant Formula with Resveratrol
Antioxidant ingredients: Tea polyphenols, resveratrol, caffeine
Added sodium hyaluronate for moisturizing and bisabolol for anti-inflammatory and soothing.
This serum has a refreshing skin feel, and the skin tone can remain bright for a long time after use. It also has oil control function, which is more suitable for oily skin. If you have dry skin, please use other moisturizing products.
It is also non-irritating and very suitable for sensitive skin. If you can’t stand the irritation of high concentrations of vitamin C, you can try this one.
But its biggest disadvantage is that it is easy to ball up.
The ability of lipoic acid to independently resist oxidation is not strong. It is generally combined with other antioxidant ingredients, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, and so on.
The role of lipoic acid is to resurrect the anti-oxidant ingredient that died fighting free radicals. Therefore, there are few single lipoic acid products on the market.
The Ordinary Alpha Lipoic Acid 5%
Antioxidant ingredients: 5% lipoic acid
The concentration of 5% lipoic acid is the highest in the industry. This serum contains only lipoic acid. It is recommended to use it together with other antioxidant ingredients. For example, if you use Timeless 20% C + E + Ferulic Acid Serum, you can add lipoic acid to improve the antioxidant effect.
EUK is an antioxidant that is more expensive than gold.
EUK does not act as an auxiliary like lipoic acid, it can be used as the main antioxidants, and EUK does not die with free radicals like vitamin C. EUK can still be well preserved in the process of scavenging free radicals and can be reused with a small amount.
EUK has a small molecular weight and high permeability, which can directly enter the skin to play a role.
EUK is not only anti-oxidant, but also anti-inflammatory, inhibits facial collagen degradation, repairs DNA damage, and resists photoaging.
EUK is easy to decompose in a strong acid environment. In order not to affect the use effect, try to avoid mixing with products below PH4.5, such as high-concentration vitamin C serum.
The Ordinary EUK-134 0.1%
Antioxidant ingredients: 0.1% EUK-134
EUK is expensive, and the concentration of 0.1% is high.
If you have enough budget, don’t like the skin feel of The Ordinary, and want to try EUK, you can choose from brands such as Estee Lauder, LAMER, and Clinique.
Idebenone is a derivative of Coenzyme Q10, but it has a smaller molecular weight and is more easily absorbed by the skin.
Coenzyme Q10 can only remove free radicals inside the mitochondria, but not outside the mitochondria.
Idebenone is a super antioxidant, and its antioxidant capacity is stronger than other ingredients. Some drugs for treating Alzheimer’s disease also use idebenone.
It not only has a strong antioxidant capacity but also has an outstanding anti-aging effect. Studies have shown that idebenone is very effective in eliminating wrinkles, resisting skin damage caused by light, inhibiting skin inflammation, increasing skin moisture content, and synthesizing facial collagen.
Idebenone is only a fat-soluble antioxidant ingredient, and it is generally combined with water-soluble antioxidant ingredients, such as tea polyphenols and ergothioneine.
Cons: Although idebenone is very effective, it is not suitable for everyone. It has the following disadvantages.
- It is easily oxidized. Perhaps only one-third of a bottle of serum is used, and the rest is oxidized during use and loses its activity. Idebenone is best stored in the refrigerator to avoid the deactivation of active substances.
- Idebenone is not recommended to be used during the day. If you want to use it during the day, please use sunscreen.
- Idebenone is highly sensitizing, and some people will get contact dermatitis when using it. People with unstable skin, sensitive skin, or acne should not use it.
- Idebenone is an orange-yellow active substance, and the face will look orange-yellow after use.
Elizabeth Arden Prevage Anti-aging Daily Serum
Antioxidant ingredients: 0.5% idebenone, ergothioine, tea polyphenols, peucedanum graveolen, vitamin C glucoside
Added retinol linoleate for anti-aging.
Use this serum before going to bed, and the skin will be bright after waking up the next day.
But it has the following disadvantages:
- It has too many preservatives, and some people will feel tingling when using it. At the same time, idebenone is easy to cause skin sensitivity. It is not recommended for skin that is not very healthy.
- It is easy to make the skin yellow, and it can also yellow clothes and pillowcases.